Working together with metabotropic glutamate receptors, the NMDA receptor ensures the establishment of long-term potentiation (LTP), a process believed to be responsible for the acquisition of information. These functions are mediated by calcium entry through the NMDA receptor-associated channel, which in turn influences a wide variety of cellular components, like cytoskeletal proteins or second-messenger synthases. However, over activation at the NMDA receptor triggers an excessive entry of calcium ions, initiating a series of cytoplasmic and nuclear processes that promote neuronal cell death through necrosis as well as apoptosis, and these mechanisms have been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases.
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited disorder that causes degeneration of brain cells, called neurons, in motor control regions of the brain, as well as other areas. Symptoms of the disease, which gets progressively worse, include uncontrolled movements (called chorea), abnormal body postures, and changes in behavior, emotion, judgment, and cognition. HD is caused by an expansion in the number of glutamine repeats beyond 35 at the amino terminal end of a protein termed "huntingtin." Such a mutation in huntingtin leads to a sequence of progressive cellular changes in the brain that result in neuronal loss and other characteristic neuropathological features of HD. These are most prominent in the neostriatum and in the cerebral cortex, but also observed in other brain areas.
The tissue levels of two neurotoxic metabolites of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation, quinolinic acid (QUIN) and 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) are increased in the striatum and neocortex, but not in the cerebellum, in early stage HD. QUIN and 3-HK and especially the joint action of these two metabolites, have long been associated with the neurodegenerative and other features of the pathophysiology of HD. The neuronal death caused by QUIN and 3-HK is due to both free radical formation and NMDA receptor overstimulation (excitotoxicity).
Based on the hypothesis that 3-HK and QUIN are involved in the progression of HD, early intervention aimed at affecting the kynurenine pathway in the brain may present a promising treatment strategy. We believe the ability of AV-101 to reduce the brain levels of neurotoxic QUIN and to potentially produce significant local concentrations of 7-Cl-KYNA on chronic administration, may present an exciting opportunity for further investigation of AV-101 as a potential chronic treatment alternative for certain symptoms of HD.