Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent neurological disorders, affecting almost 1% of the worldwide population. According to the Epilepsy Foundation, as many as three million Americans have epilepsy, and one-third of those suffering from epilepsy are not effectively treated with currently available medications.1 In addition, standard anticonvulsants can cause significant side effects, which frequently interfere with compliance.

Glutamate is a neurotransmitter that is also critically involved in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Through its stimulation of the NMDAR subtype, glutamate has been implicated in the neuropathology and clinical symptoms of the disease. In support of this, NMDAR antagonists are potent anticonvulsants. However, as noted, classic ion channel-blocking NMDAR antagonists are limited by adverse effects, such as neurotoxicity, declining mental status, and the onset of psychotic symptoms following administration of the drug. The endogenous amino acid glycine modulates glutamatergic neurotransmission by stimulating the glycine co-agonist site of the NMDAR. Glycine site antagonists such as AV-101’s active metabolite, 7-Cl-KYNA, inhibit NMDAR function and are therefore anticonvulsant and neuroprotective. Importantly, glycine site antagonists have fewer and less severe side effects than classic ion channel-blocking NMDAR antagonists and other antiepileptic agents, making them a safer potential alternative to, and one expected to be associated with greater patient compliance than, currently available anticonvulsant medications.

In addition, another active metabolite of AV-101, 4-Cl-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, inhibits the synthesis of quinolinic acid (QUIN), which is an endogenous NMDAR agonist that causes convulsions and excitotoxic neuronal damage.


VistaGen’s Innovation:

AV-101 has been shown to protect against seizures and neuronal damage in preclinical animal models of epilepsy.

Development Status:

Upon successful Phase 1b development of AV-101 in combination with probenecid, we believe AV-101’s dual action as a NMDAR GlyB antagonist and QUIN synthesis inhibitor, and exploratory preclinical data, together with human safety data in all clinical studies to date, may provide support for Phase 2a clinical development of AV-101, together with probenecid, as a potential new generation treatment for epilepsy.